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  • Neodymium Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) Crystal

Nd:YAG crystal is the most widely used solid-state laser material today. Now,we are able to stably supply quantity of Nd:YAG rods with high optical homogeneity, consistent performance, high processing accuracy and on time delivery. Different specifications and size from f 3 x 0.5 mm to f 12 x 150 mm are available in AZURE.

1. Basic Properties (1.0 atm% Nd doped)

Chemical Formula


Crystal Structure


Lattice Constants

12.01 Å


~ 1.2 x 1020 cm-3

Melting Point

1970 oC


4.56 g/cm3

Mohs Hardness


Refractive Index


Thermal Expansion Coefficient

7.8 x 10-6 /K [111], 0 - 250 oC

Thermal Conductivity

14 W/m /K @20 oC, 10.5 W /m /K @100 oC.

Lasing Wavelength

1064 nm

Stimulated Emission Cross Section

2.8x10-19 cm-2

Relaxation Time of Terminal Lasing Level

30 ns

Radiative Lifetime

550 ms

Spontaneous Fluorescence

230 ms

Loss Coefficient

0.003 cm-1 @ 1064 nm

Effective Emission Cross Section

2.8 x 10-19 cm2

Pump Wavelength

807.5 nm

Absorption band at pump wavelength

1 nm


0.6 nm

Polarized Emission


Thermal Birefringence


2. Standard Products specification

Dopant Concentration (atomic %): 0.9%~ 1.1%

Orientation: <111> crystalline direction (±5“)

Wavefront distortion:l/8 per inch, measured by a double-pass interferometer @ 633 nm

Extinction Ratio:
Rods with diameter from 3 mm to 6.35 mm and with length to 100 mm:>30dB

Rods with diameter from 7 mm to 10 mm and with length to 100 mm:>28dB

Dimension Tolerances
Rods with diameter: ±0.025 mm (±0.001"), Length: ±0.5 mm (±0.02")
Barrel Finish:50 80 micro-inch (RMS) ,  grooved rod barrel are also available

Ends Finish:
Surface Figure: <l/10 @ 633 nm
Parallelism: < 10 arc seconds
Surface quality:< 5 ar c minutes
Clear Aperture: > 10/5 Scratch / Digper MIL-O-1380A
chamfer:<0.1 mm @ 45°
clear Aperture:extend over the entire faces to the chamfered edges

Anti-Reflection Coating:
Single layer MgF2 coating with high damage threshold for high power laser operation. Reflectivity R < 0.25% @ 1064 nm per surface. Damage threshold over 750 MW/cm2@ 1064nm, 10 ns and 10 HZ.

High-Reflection Coating:
Standard HR coating with R>99.8% @ 1064nm and R<5% @ 808nm can be performed in AZURE. Other HR coatings, such as HR @ 1064/532 nm, HR @ 946nm, HR 1319 nm and other wavelengths are also available.

Standard products in-stock:
The standard Nd:YAG laser rod with dimension of f3x5 mm and f4x50 mm with AR or HR- coating for Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers (DPSS) are ready for immediate delivery. For more information about standard Nd:YAG rods, please refer to page 62 of Diode Pumped Laser Optics Kits.

Higher grade or specific Nd:YAG rods or slabs are also available upon request.dd

  • Chromium Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Cr4+:YAG)Crystal

A High Power, Solid State and Compact Passive Q-switch

Passive Q-Switching is preferred for simplicity of manufacturing and operation, low cost and reduced system size and weight. Cr4+:YAG (Y3Al5O12) is an excellent crystal for passively Q-switching diode pumped or lamp-pumped Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF, Yb:YAG or other Nd and Yb doped lasers at wavelength from 1.0 to 1.2 mm. Because of its chemically stable, durable, UV resistant, good thermal conductivity and high damage threshold (> 500 MW/cm2) and being easy to be operated, it will replace traditional materials, such as, LiF, organic Dye and color centers.

Basic Properties of Cr4+:YAG



Crystal Structure

Cubic Garnet

Dopant Level

0.5 mol% ~ 3 mol%


8.5 (Mohs)

Damage Threshold

> 500 MW/cm2

Refractive Index

1.82 @ 1064 nm

Main Specifications


< l/8

Wavefront Distortion

< l/4


< 30”

Surface quality

20/10 scratch/dig


R<0.2% @ 1064 nm

Standard Aperture

3X3 ~ 10X10 mm

AR-coatings and HR-coatings are also available. We can control the initial transmission(To) from 10% to 95% according to customers's requirements. Standard size of 3X3 mm2 with T0=80% or 90% in inventory for immediate delivery. Please refer to Diode Pumped Laser Optics Kits for more information.

The preliminary experiments of AZURE's Cr4+:YAG showed that the pulse width of passively Q-switched lasers could be as short as 9 ns for diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers and repetition as high as 10kHz for diode pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers. Furthermore, an efficient green output @ 532 nm, and UV output @ 355 nm and 266 nm were generated, after a subsequent interactivity SHG in KTP for diode pumped and passive Q-switched Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 lasers.

Cr4+:YAG is also a laser crystal with tunable output from 1.35 mm to 1.6 mm. It can generate ultrashort pulse laser (to fs pulsed) when pumped by Nd:YAG laser at 1.064mm.

Note: When ordering Cr4+: YAG crystal, please specify the aperture, initial transmission(To) and coatings. aaaa


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